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The Law of Treaties

The practice of concluding treaties in the modern history of the Republic of Belarus began with the formation of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic on January 1, 1919.

One of its' first treaties, the Treaty on the military and economic union of the BSSR and the RSFSR , was signed on January 16, 1921. In this Treaty the independence and sovereignty of each of the contracting parties was recognized on the basis of the right of peoples to self-determination.

On December 30, 1922 four republics, including the BSSR, signed the Treaty on the Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It empowered the USSR to represent the BSSR in the whole entirety of its' international relations.

The right of the republics of the Union to conduct their foreign policy had been restored since February 1, 1944.

On June 26, 1945 Kuzma Kiselev, the People's Commissioner of Foreign Affairs of the BSSR, signed the UN Charter on behalf of the BSSR, as an independent subject of international relations and international law.

In total from 1944 to 1991 the BSSR had concluded 156 treaties.

On July 27, 1990 the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian SSR was adopted. It was granted the status of a constitutional law on August 25, 1991.

On December 8, 1991 Belarus signed the Agreement establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States, and on December 10 of the same year the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR of 1922.

Belarus automatically became the successor to the treaties of the Belarusian SSR.

As of January 1, 2022 the Republic of Belarus participates in 2 575 bilateral and 1 747 multilateral treaties. 

In 2021 the Republic of Belarus signed 20 bilateral and 27 multilateral treaties, including 10 within the CIS, 11 in the framework of the EEU, 1 within the CSTO, 1 – with the OPEC Fund for International Development, 2 – with  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Figure 1

In 2020, the Republic of Belarus signed 36 bilateral and multilateral treaties. 11 treaties were concluded with CIS states, 8 with the states of Asia, 5 with the states of Europe, 3 with the states of Africa; 9 with the international organizations, including 4 with the European Union, 5 credit and financial treaties. The Republic of Belarus also signed 10 and became the part to 25 multilateral treaties, including 16 within the CIS, 11 in the framework of the EEU, 1 within the CSTO.

In 2019, Belarus signed 33 multilateral treaties, including 20 in the framework of the EAEU, 9 within the CIS, one each within the framework of the Eastern Partnership and the Universal Postal Union (inter alia, Council of Europe Convention on the counterfeiting of medical products and similar crimes involving threats to public health (Medicrime) and the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation).

The latest version of the Law on Treaties entered into force in December 2018.

The MFA has also prepared a Manual, which clarifies in detail the procedure which Belarusian state bodies follow operating with treaties and their drafts.

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