The application of import customs duties on imported goods is one of the main instruments of the trade policy of any state.
The rates of import customs duties of the Common Customs Tariff of the Eurasian Economic Union (CCT of the EAEU) that were approved by the Decision of the EEC Council of September 14, 2021 № 80 are applied to goods imported to the Republic of Belarus from third countries.
The customs tariff is a list of customs duties, ranked according to the commodity nomenclature.
The major goals of the CCT of the EAEU are:
— enabling efficient integration of the Union into the global economy;
— streamlining the commodity structure for goods imported into the customs territory of the Union;
— maintaining a rational correlation between export and import of goods on the customs territory of the Union;
— enabling progressive changes in the structure of production and consumption of goods within the Union;
— supporting for various economy sectors of the Union.
In the member states of the Union, as in most other countries, the CCT of the EAEU is created in accordance with the principles of tariff escalation and effective tariff protection. In practice this is reflected in the establishment of the lowest duty rates on raw materials and the highest – for finished products and highly processed products.
Thus, incentives are created for the importation of necessary raw materials and components. At the same time, tariff protection for finished products and highly processed products is increasing, what creates incentives for the development of manufacturing industry within the EAEU members. There are some types of import customs duties rates which are applied in the CCT of the EAEU:
— ad valorem (in percentage of the customs value of imported goods);
— specific (charged for a unit of imported goods);
— combined (combination of aforesaid types).
The import customs duties rates of the CCT of the EAEU are applied in relation to goods imported on the customs territory of the EAEU members and originated from any country (including the origin of which is not determined), excepting cases of granting tariff preferences as well as cases of application of free trade regime.
As for the agricultural products originating from third countries it is allowed to establish tariff-rate quotas (TRQ) for their import, provided that similar products are produced (mined, grown) on the customs territory.
Different customs duties (in-quota or out-of-quota) are applied to such goods.
Terms and mechanisms of TRQ are defined by Annex 6 to the Treaty on the EAEU. Information on the distribution of tariff quotas in the EAEU can be found here.
The distribution of tariff quotas in the Republic of Belarus for poultry meat and pork is carried out on the basis of the Government’s decision by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, for rice – by the Ministry of Antimonopoly Regulation and Trade.
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