The usage of import customs duties on imported goods is one of the main instruments of the trade policy of any state.
The rates of import customs duties of the Unified Customs Tariff of the Eurasian Economic Union (UCT of the EEU) that were approved by the Decision of the EEC Council of July 16, 2012 ¹ 54 (with amendments and additions) are applied to goods imported to the Republic of Belarus from third countries.
The customs tariff is a list of customs duties, ranked according to the commodity nomenclature, which is applied to the classification of goods in international trade.
The major goals of the UCT of the EEU are:
In the member states of the Union, as in most other countries, the UCT of the EEU is created in accordance with the principles of tariff escalation and effective tariff protection. In practice this is reflected in the establishment of the lowest rates of duty on raw materials and the highest — for finished products and highly processed products.
Thus, incentives are created for the importation of necessary raw materials and mechanisms. At the same time, tariff protection for finished products and highly processed products is increasing, what creates incentives for the development of manufacturing industry within the Union’s members. There are some types of import customs duties rates which are applied in the UCT of the EEU:
The import customs duties rates of the UCT of the EEU are applied in relation to goods imported into the unified customs territory of the Union’s members and originated from any country (including the origin of which is not established), excepting cases of granting tariff preferences as well as cases of application of free trade regime.
For operative regulation of the import of goods into the unified customs territory of the Union’s members, seasonal customs duties may be established with the validity of six months per year, that are applied instead of import customs duties.
As for the agricultural products originating in third countries it is allowed to provide incentives (preferences) through the establishment of tariff quotas for their import, provided that similar products are produced (mined, grown) in the common customs territory.
There are different rates of import customs duties that are applied in accordance with the UCT of the EEU to the indicated agricultural goods that was imported on the unified customs territory, depending on the assigned amount.
Tariff quotas on the import of meat to the Republic of Belarus in 2015 have been established by the decision of the EEC Board of August 19, 2014 ¹ 131.